From an operational perspective, from January 14, 2020, the U.S. Customs and Border Protection Automated Commercial Environment (ACE) will be able to process claims under the new U.S.-Japan trade agreement from January 14, 2020, with the new special program indicator “JP” as a prefix to the permissible customs number15. Finally, General Note 36 will be added to the HTSUS and will include other guidelines. However, the main focus has been on reduced rates. Japan has agreed to reduce tariffs on certain imports of beef, pork, nuts, berries and cheeses to the United States. In particular, tariffs on $2.9 billion of Imports of Japanese beef and pork into the United States will be reduced and import taxes of Japan$4.3 billion on goods worth $4.3 billion, such as nuts, berries, wine and cheese, will be totally eliminated. This should help U.S. farmers and farmers whose potential access to the Japanese market was underestimated when the United States withdrew from the Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP), resulting in 10 other countries facing relatively favourable tariffs when exporting to Japan. In return, the United States will lower the prices of many Japanese industrial and agricultural products, such as bicycles, musical instruments, wagyu beef and soy sauce. 9. www.whitehouse.gov/briefings-statements/president-donald-j-trump-secured-tremendous-victory-american-farmers-businesses-new-japan-trade-agreements/. 2.
ustr.gov/about-us/policy-offices/press-office/press-releases/2019/december/ambassador-lighthizer-lauds-japan#. Nearly three years after his presidency, Trump had only concluded another trade deal that came into effect – a small renegotiation of the free trade agreement between the United States and Korea. Its negotiators also agreed on a new North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), which must be passed by both the Senate and the Democratic-controlled House of Representatives. President Trump, as part of the government`s broader trade agenda, has long criticized the trade imbalance between the United States and Japan, the world`s largest and third-largest economies, respectively. To reduce the U.S. trade deficit by $56.7 billion, President Trump and Japanese Prime Minister Shinzo Abe have jointly announced their intention to open negotiations for a U.S.-Japan trade deal in 2018. The United States and Japan agree on merchandise trade and digital trade, President Trump and Prime Minister Abe announced the trade agreement on September 25, 2019 at the United Nations General Assembly in New York.6 Japan requested its ratification by presenting the agreements of its bicameral legislation, the National Parliament. On November 19, 2019, the lower house of Parliament, the House of Representatives, voted on both agreements. On 4 December 2019, the Landtag approved the agreements after adoption by the Council, the House of Lords of the Landtag. In the absence of congressional approval in the United States, President Trump signed the agreements himself on December 26, 2019. Both agreements came into force on January 1, 2020.
10. U.S.-Japan Trade Agreement, Appendix I: Japan`s Tariffs and Customs Provisions, I-B-5-1; ustr.gov/sites/default/files/files/agreements/japan/Annex_I_Tariffs_and_Tariff-Related_Provisions_of_Japan.pdf. Nevertheless, the agreement could be reviewed on other fronts. The World Trade Organization (WTO) only allows bilateral trade agreements that cover “essentially” the whole of trade, a somewhat vague rule that the agreement does not respect. The logic behind this requirement is that it allows countries to liberalize trade through bilateral agreements without violating the WTO`s most advanced principle.